Adhesions and Connective Tissue


Adhesions can be considered in two ways: cell adhesions and unnatural adhesions caused by external stimuli. Cell adhesions are complimentary connections naturally found in the human body. Cells are destined to interact with their external environment through cell surface molecules. External environment may be the extracellular material or may be the basement membrane. Basement membrane is an important sheet-like barrier or structure that underlies almost each and every type of epithelium. Basement membrane consists of two types of lamina: basal lamina and reticular lamina. Basal lamina is made upof proteins like collagen type IV and laminin and proteoglycans while reticular lamina is composed of reticular fibers. Cells are adherent through cell junctions and anchor each other. These junctions work as transporters and communicators.

Connective tissue supports epithelial cells and helps other cell functions. It is composed of support cells, guest cells and associated extracellular matrix. Support cells include fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts and fat cells. Guest cells include macrophages and mast cells. Extracellular matrix consists of certain proteins and other complex molecules made up of mixture of two or more types of molecules. All these cells and matrix perform their vital role to offer functions like storage of energy, protection, provision of structure and shape, connections, transport, nutrition, defense and tissue repair.

On the other hand, adhesions (scarring) are unnatural accumulations of elements in the form of bands which abnormally connect two or more surfaces of tissues and disturb the body functions. Such adhesions may arise from surgical procedures, trauma and radiations during the process of wound repair, especially when the process is unbalanced. These adhesions may be made up of atoms, molecules, cells and tissues. They hinder organ movements, and may block blood supply and nutrition to the organs, causing pain and decreasing organ functioning. Such adhesions are always considered abnormal. In order to get rid of such adhesions or scars and to improve the organ function, one may have to undergo readmission to the hospital, reoperation and painful longer stay at hospital along with extra money loss. More recent modalities offer non-invasive physiotherapy techniques to deal with adhesions.



  1. Joe Danna CNMT December 28, 2018 at 9:30 pm - Reply

    These are interesting comments. I have a client with surgical adhesions above the knee. Flexion is greatly limited. I’ve used graston technique for a year with only slight results. Doctor says to continue aggressively. These must be deep adhesions. Do you think your product would help? Thank you

    • Ron Barranger January 2, 2019 at 1:47 pm - Reply

      We get excellent results on types of scars/adhesions regardless of cause. Definitely worth trying.

  2. Leslie Frank August 23, 2018 at 7:59 pm - Reply

    I have a question regarding adhesions
    Are you including muscles in your definition of organs affected by adhesions? I’m pretty sure you are but I think a lot of us don’t think of muscles as organs they may be technically sooo just to be clear

    • acumed August 24, 2018 at 11:37 am - Reply

      Hello Leslie,
      Yes, muscles are included in the definition of organs affected by adhesion.

  3. Robin March 23, 2018 at 7:28 pm - Reply

    Am interested in attending seminar…am a NYS Licensed Massage Therapist with successful medical massage practice for 15 years…located 70 miles Northwest of NYC…do you have seminars available?

  4. Kwan Chong March 19, 2018 at 9:01 pm - Reply

    When we treat with dolphin system, you mean the negative impact of adhesion is not that strong while the adhesion continues to be? like adhesion is not that tough any more?

    • Nathan Luong March 26, 2018 at 9:54 am - Reply

      Hello Kwan, this technique works on internal adhesion; they seem to diminish or disappear, not sure about the pathology, but they are much smaller and softer

  5. Dianne Darcy February 27, 2018 at 12:36 am - Reply


    I’m an acupunturist looking for a device to help with deep abdominal adhesions. In order to use this device for adhesions, would I need to come in for training?


  6. Chrissie Anderson LMT February 3, 2018 at 3:28 am - Reply

    Oh also is this an item that I could use
    my Flexible Spending Account for?

    • Nathan Luong February 8, 2018 at 12:47 pm - Reply

      Thank you for your question.
      We suggest you purchase the prescription model, and contact your insurance company and provide the HCPCS code: e0745 to see how much you would be reimbursed for.
      Thank you.

  7. Chrissie Anderson LMT February 3, 2018 at 3:26 am - Reply

    Hi there. I am so encouraged by reading about this product. I want to give you some history about me. I was a massage therapist for over 20 yrs, since 1993. I had gastric bypass surgery in 2007 & since then I have had multiple surgeries for abdominal adhesions, fistula & a revision. I have not been able to work since 2012.I do still have my license. Do you offer the in training online courses. I live in St. Lawrence County Upstate NY(15 mins from Canada), I don’t think there would be anyone local.

    • Nathan Luong February 6, 2018 at 11:50 am - Reply

      Thanks for your question Chrissie,
      We do not currently teach online courses. Regarding a therapist near your area, we have a program on our website that allows you to search for therapists around you based on your zipcode:

  8. Joanne December 28, 2017 at 12:52 pm - Reply

    Read this treatment helps those with Parkinson’s. Is this true? If so, please explain how it can help as I know several declining from the disease. Thanks 🙏

    • Nathan Luong January 2, 2018 at 4:44 pm - Reply

      Hi Joanne,
      Thank you for your question.
      We’ve had testimonials about the effectiveness of Parkinson’s, please see this link for how it has helped someone with Parkinson’s:
      I hope this provides you insight you are looking for.

  9. Traian C Soare December 21, 2017 at 8:31 am - Reply

    Hy my name is Traian C Soare and i had an o.r.i.f. surgery on my right elbow a year and a few months ago. I got an olecranon plate and a humerus plate screwed in. After surgery my hand got completely stiff. P.T. didn’t do too much. I regained a few degrees in the range of motion, but i still can’t fully flex or extend my arm. I have to do constantly P.T. otherwise i will loose the little range of motion i regained. My surgeon recommended me another surgery for removal of hardware plates and screws, and cleaning of the scar tissue. Is there another alternative using your MPS product to increase my ROM in my arm considering i still have these plates and screws attached to my bones. Is this hardware gonna interact with your MPS product ? Can i use your product safely by having these surgical implants ? THANK YOU FOR YOUR HELP 😊 !!!

    • Nathan Luong December 21, 2017 at 12:14 pm - Reply

      Hi Traian, thank you for your question! The Dolphin Neurostim can be used with no issues with your surgical implants.

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